(1)Hunger is a complex problem, exacerbated by financial pressures, volatile commodity prices, natural disasters and civil wars.


exacerbateは「悪化させる」などの意。Cambridgeではto make something that is already bad even worseと説明されていて、「すでに悪いものを」という部分が参考になる。




(2)In the case of overeating and obesity caused by personal eating habits, those who favor government involvement point out that medical costs in the United States are soaring and that a growing reason is the increase in disease caused or aggravated by obesity.(慶應大)


(3)Surgery should be a last-resort treatment for obesity. Operations involve risk, which is compounded by anesthesia and post-op* recovery. 


(4)But most LEDs are actually brighter than the old lights, further increasing light pollution. In fact, LEDs could worsen the effects of light pollution on human health and the environment by more than five times. The problem is worsening as China, India, Brazil, and many other countries become increasingly wealthy and urbanized. (青学)




ところで、compoundは受験でも定番の単語だが多くの学生は「混合物・化合物」などの意味の名詞で覚えている気がする。動詞では「混ぜる」とか「~から成る(be compounded from / of)」などの使い方もあるが、「悪化させる」の意味にもなる。そして、多くの英英辞典ではto make a problem or difficult situation worseの意味を最初に挙げている。





(1)Today we live surrounded by an array of ingenious gadgets on which, in the developed world at least, the lives of even moderately well-to-do people are hopelessly dependent. 


ingeniousは「(人、考えなどが)工夫に富む、巧妙な、独創的な」などの意の形容詞。Cambridgeでは(of a person) very intelligent and skilful, or (of a thing) skilfully made or planned and involving new ideas and methodsと定義されている。非常にわかりやすい。ロングマンから例文を一つ。


(2)Many fish have ingenious ways of protecting their eggs from predators.


さて、Cambridgeでは類義語としてcleverとcunningが載っている。前者は分かるとして、後者については若干の??。個人的にこの単語は「ずる賢い」とか「人をだますのがうまい」と言ったようなマイナスの意味合いを持った単語だと思っていた。実際ロングマンでもsomeone who is cunning is clever and good at deceiving people in order to get what they wantとある。そしてもう一つbehaviour or actions that are cunning are clever but dishonest and unfair, and are used to get what you wantとある。


ingeniousにそんな意味ないのでは?と思ったが、cunningを辞書でよく見てみると、「〈物が〉巧妙な」とある。知らなかった・・。ロングマンにはa cunning object or piece of equipment is clever and unusualとある。なるほど。




(3)It has to be said it was rather ingenuous of him to ask a complete stranger to take care of his luggage.(ingenuous: honest, sincere, and trusting, sometimes in a way that seems silly

(4)A slum can demonstrate both the very best and the very worst in society, showing the ingenuity of poor people in desperate circumstances as well as the failure of government to make the most of this human energy. (ingenuity: someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something)

(5)Are there any species of frog indigenous to the area? (indigenous: naturally existing in a place or country rather than arriving from another place)






(6)Human ingenuity has always found a way to accommodate rising populations and allow most to prosper.(慶應大)





(1)Having been accepted as a companion, if not a daughter, I settled into an amicable routine with my mother.


これは「友好的な、平和的な」の意の形容詞。ロングマンではan amicable agreement, relationship etc is one in which people feel friendly towards each other and do not want to quarrelと説明されている。この説明から分かるように、人についてではなく「人と人の間の関係」や「態度」などについて述べる形容詞となる。叙述用法でも限定用法でも用いられる。


(2)The two parties have reached an amicable settlement.

(3)The meeting between the two leaders was very amicable.


Cambridgeの定義ではrelating to behaviour between people that is pleasant and friendly, often despite a difficult situationとなっている。上の入試問題では、娘である自分を娘として認識してくれない高齢の母親への切なさ?みたいなものを綴った部分に続くところであるから、確かに「(つらいながらも)友好的な日常が始まった」的なニュアンスが読み取れる。


限定用法で名詞につく場合、頻度の高い名詞には何があるかCOCAで検索してみると、divorce / relations / relationship / solution / agreement / partingが上位に来る。例を一つ。


(4)This past June, the couple went through what many described as an amicable divorce after ten years of marriage and two children: a boy, Madden and a girl, Maui.


この一文はwhat many described as an amicable divorceのところがいとおかし。went throughの目的語になっているのは結局のところan amicable divorceである。このように、いわゆる文型のCにあたる要素を含むwhat関係節は全体としてCがメインに言いたい部分になっている構造で、こうしたものは専門的にはtransparent free relativesと言うらしい。(4)のような例だとあまり特殊感がないかもしれないが、次の例を見ると、andによって等位接続される部分は形容詞なはずなので、名詞節を作るはずのwhatが全体としては形容詞句になっているという特殊感がよく分かる。


(5)Her voice was soft, silky, and what I can only describe as dangerous.

(岸本・菊池 (2008)『叙述と修飾』研究社. より)


このtransparent free relativesについては後で別に記事にする予定。


ところで、個人的には(4)の例のtwo childrenが興味深い。これはおそらくafter two children(ten years of two childrenではなく)と読むべきだと思うが、言いたいことはきっと「二人の子供を産んだ後で(育てた後で)」ということだろう。【after 数詞 children】で「~人の子供を産んだ後で」という表現になれるというのは知らなかった。今回たまたまこういう言い方をしている、という特殊な表現ではないだろうという予測のものこのパターンをCOCAで検索してみると、いくつか例が見つかる。


(6)She somehow managed to keep a great body after three children and she thinks if you're not Irish, you should at least try.


(7)But a blind date set up by her father led to marriage at age 18 to Danny Lotz, a former college basketball star 11 years her senior. After three children, Anne settled into the life of a traditional Southern housewife.


(8)Sarah is a beautiful woman, with dark hair and a killer body even after two children. She's too good-looking for me.


(9)Her body was thinner than ever after two children, her breasts as small as a young girl's.


「~人の子供」という表現で「~人の子供を産むこと」を意味するとしたら、ほぼ消えかかった認知言語学の知識を使っていえばメトニミー的な表現ということになるのかもしれないが、どちらかというと【after ~ children】というafterと共起する時くらいしかこの意味合いではあまり使わないのではないか。まあ、いずれにせよ、結構面白い表現だと思う。






(1)When, not so many decades ago, learning that one had TB was tantamount to hearing a sentence of death - as today, in the popular imagination, cancer equals death - it was common to conceal the identity of their disease from tuberculars and, after they died, from their children. 


tantamountは「等しい、同等の」の意の形容詞で、上の例のようにtantamount toの形で使う。Cambridgeの定義ではbeing almost the same or having the same effect as something, usually something badとなっており、usually something badというのが参考になる。上の例でもそのようになっている。ロングマンでもif an action, suggestion, plan etc is tantamount to something bad, it has the same effect or is almost as badとある。Cambridgeから例を一つ。


(2)Her refusal to answer was tantamount to an admission of guilt.






Cambridgeでは類義語にequivalentが挙がっている。Merriam-Websterでも定義はequivalent in value, significance, or effectとなっている。こちらのequivalentは受験でも頻出の単語。


(3)I would put the English word on one side of a card and the Japanese equivalent on the other. (センター試験)[名詞]

(4)A simple oil change for your car, for example, costs the equivalent of $25 at some gasoline stations, while buying the supplies to do it yourself costs at least $20, meaning it is cost-efficient to let the gasoline station do it for you.(慶應)[名詞]

(5) Economists estimate that by 2025, with current water use patterns and the growing population, water shortage will cut global food production by 350 million tons a year. That is the equivalent of a loaf of bread every week for every person on the planet. (甲南大)[名詞]

(6)As we know from the Institute of Medicine reports and others, medical errors and health-care-associated conditions lead to 200,000 preventable deaths per year in this country alone. That's the equivalent of 20 large jet airliners crashing every week with no survivors.(順天堂大)[名詞]

(7) Even so, 80 million people each year are added to the world's population, a number roughly equivalent to the population of Germany, Vietnam or Ethiopia. (専修大)[形容詞]

(8) They found that only 46 percent of those who lost a ticket were willing to buy another ticket, whereas 88 percent of those who lost an equivalent amount of cash were willing to buy a ticket. (東洋大)[形容詞]

(9)In Western cultures, to look directly into another person's eyes is equivalent to saying, "I'm open to you ― let the action begin." (拓殖大)[形容詞]




(10)High performing students in less developed regions face a much different future from their counterparts' in wealthier areas. (青学)




(11)The term was invented by economists to help explain why people are not as shrewd in bargaining as they could be, in theory, when they possess information that their opposite number does not. (大阪市立大)


opposite numberはcounterpartの類義表現であり、面白い言い方だなと思う。












(1) An obvious answer is that access to contraception gives us control over our reproductive fate, allowing us to limit the number of children we have.




ロングマンではthe practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant when she has sex, or the methods for doing thisと説明され、類義表現にbirth controlと書かれている。まあつまり、避妊すること自体とそれを行う方法の両方を意味するということになる。




(2)Improvements in girls' access to education and in women's status have increased women's control over their lives, including when and how many children to have. And broad access to contraceptives has boosted the share of couples using these family planning methods from 10 percent in 1960 to nearly 60 percent in 2000.(千葉大




ところで、Cambridgeの定義では(the use of) any of various methods intended to prevent a woman becoming pregnantとなっており、大方ロングマンと同じだが、prevent O from ingのfromがない形になっている。stop / preventなどの【V O from ing】構文を取る動詞の一部はこのようにfromがない形もあるので、注意が必要。

no matter +名詞句



(1)All plastic debris, no matter the size, may cause health hazards.


下線を引いた部分にはno matterという表現が使われている。一般にこの表現は疑問詞を後ろに取り、次のような形で使うのが一般的だ(ジーニアスの例文)。


(2)Don't expect others to read youe mind, no matter how long they've known you.


手持ちの辞書や文法書等を見た限りno matterの次に(1)のような名詞句が続く形については説明がない。しかし、(1)のような使い方が間違いかというと、以下に示されるように(入試問題だけを見ても)かなり例は存在する。


(3)The other side would say that altering historical fact is wrong, no matter the reason, and that instead of Ross, stories about other women should be taught.(国学院大)

(4)He started repairing Aibos in 2011, when a customer begged him to fix her dog no matter the cost. (国士舘大

(5)They are confident that no matter the outlook for the rest of the economy their own markets will continue to expand and that their sophisticated information technology system will be the tool to ensure that this happens and that their optimism is justified. (中央大)

(6)As a black female entrepreneur and person in the spotlight, I am trying to figure out how I can move the needle forward and open doors for everyone, no matter the color of their skin. But I want to start with the wage gap.(早稲田大)

(7)No matter the field, the most successful people were lucky and talented.(愛知教育大)

(8)My dad is a really open-hearted person who constantly showers us with hugs and kisses no matter the occasion. (茨城大)


ちなみにCOCAで【no matter the】で検索をかけると800例以上出てくるので、意外と普通の表現なのだろう。


ようするにno matterで前置詞としての働きが強いと言えるだろう(なお、Huddleston and Pullum (2002)には前置詞と書いてある)。


意味的にはregardless of Aという表現にかなり近いと思う。




(9)My husband’s grandmother, who has seven kids, 15 grandchildren and four great-grandchildren, complains that she receives so many photos her Presto ink runs out too quickly. Which, we assume, is a problem most grandparents would be happy to have ― no matter the delivery method.


ここで、no matter the delivery methodを次のように完全な文に戻すように穴埋めしろ、という問題が出てる。


(9’)  no matter the delivery method = no matter   ①   the delivery method   ② 


①はwhatで②はisが入ると思う。確かに用例を見ているとno matter whatと置き換えられるようなものが散見される。


no matterと言えばあまり受験で取り上げられることが多くない気がするが、no matter ifという構文もある。


(10)We think in narratives all day long, no matter if it is about buying groceries, whether we think about work or our spouse at home. (兵庫県立大)







(1)Despite the compelling energy savings that accrue from recycling aluminum, we Americans are not realizing our recycling potential.




ロングマンではif advantages accrue to you, you get those advantages over a period of timeとあり、上の例のようなaccrue from (~から生じる)と、accrue to(~に生じる、~に手に入る)というフレーズを挙げている。後者については次のようなものが該当する。


(2)A disproportionate share of the benefits of farm programs has accrued to large farms; government programs have not enabled many of the small farms to survive.(名古屋市立大)


ロングマンの定義にあるように、この単語は「(長い)時間をかけて」の意味合いがある。Cambridgeの定義to increase in number or amount over a period of timeからもそれがよく分かる。


ところで、(1)の例の中にあるcompellingという単語は注意が必要で、動詞形のcompelは「強制する、無理やりさせる」の意で、compel O to doのパターンで使う。その形容詞形はcompellingは「強制的な」の意味もあるが、よく出てくるのは「説得力のある(≒convincing)、引き付ける、魅力的だ」の意。「引き付ける」の意に関してはロングマンのvery interesting or exciting, so that you have to pay attentionが参考になるし、次の例が分かりやすい。


(3)The film was so compelling I could scarcely take my eyes off the screen for a second.






gripping/riveting/compelling used about a very interesting storyfilm etc that you feel you must keep reading or watchinga gripping story of love and deathHe gives a riveting performance as a tough street cop.There is something compelling about his work.




(4)Another important trait of dreams is their riveting nature.(大阪大)


ロングマンの定義ではsomething that is riveting is so interesting or exciting that you cannot stop watching it or listening to itとなっている。